Coagulation is a chemical process. Flocculation is a physical process. Coagulants such as inorganic salts of aluminum or iron that neutralize the suspended particles are added during coagulation. Flocculant such as an organic polymer that involves in bridging and strengthening the flocs is added.
Is flocculant same as coagulant?
Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence. Basically, coagulation is a process of addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized charged particle. Meanwhile, flocculation is a mixing technique that promotes agglomeration and assists in the settling of particles.
What is flocculant and coagulant?
Coagulation and flocculation are two separate processes, used in succession, to overcome the forces stabilising the suspended particles. While coagulation neutralises the charges on the particles, flocculation enables them to bind together, making them bigger, so that they can be more easily separated from the liquid.
How flocculation and coagulation differ from each other?
Coagulation: Particles that aggregate with themselves e.g. by the influence of a change in pH. Flocculation: Particles that aggregate by the use of polymers that binds them together.
What comes first coagulation or flocculation?
Conventional plants separate coagulation (or rapid-mix) stage from flocculation (or slow-mix) stage. These stages are followed by sedimentation, and then filtration. Plants designed for direct filtration route water directly from flocculation to filtration. These systems typically have a higher raw-water quality.
Is alum a coagulant or flocculant?
To accomplish this, the water is treated with aluminum sulfate, commonly called alum, which serves as a flocculant. Raw water often holds tiny suspended particles that are very difficult for a filter to catch. Alum causes them to clump together so that they can settle out of the water or be easily trapped by a filter.
What makes a good flocculant?
Polymers are useful as flocculants because they are robust molecules and sometimes carry charges. Because they are so large, small particles can get trapped in the curves of the polymer causing them to accumulate a mass heavy enough to prevent their retention in solution.
Is gypsum a flocculant?
Gypsum can coagulate or bridge clay particles, which accelerates settling. Flocculants should be used to prevent damage to sensitive water resources such as ponds, lakes and trout streams or whenever turbidity control is required. The best thing to do is a jar or bucket test using slightly varying rates of gypsum.
What can be used as a flocculant?
The following natural products are used as flocculants: Chitosan. Isinglass. Moringa oleifera seeds (Horseradish Tree) Gelatin. Strychnos potatorum seeds (Nirmali nut tree) Guar gum. Alginates (brown seaweed extracts).
What is coagulant example?
Examples of primary coagulants are metallic salts, such as aluminum sulfate (referred to as alum), ferric sulfate, and ferric chloride. Cationic polymers may also be used as primary coagulants. 2. Chemicals commonly used for primary coagulants include aluminum or iron salts and organic polymers.
What is the best coagulant?
Chemical Coagulants Used In Water Treatment Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) – One of the most commonly used water treatment chemicals in the world. Aluminum Chloride – A second choice to Alum as it is more expensive, hazardous and corrosive. Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC) & Aluminum Chlorohydrate (ACH).
What two chemicals are commonly used as water coagulants?
Aluminum sulfate (alum) is the most common coagulant used for water purification. Other chemicals, such as ferric sulfate or sodium aluminate, may also be used.
What is coagulant mean?
A coagulant is a compound or agent which is added to a vessel to help thicken something. Adding a coagulant such as aluminum sulfate to water permits particles to come together and results in the formation of a flocculent mass. A coagulant is a compound or agent which is added to a vessel to help thicken something.
What is the purpose of coagulation?
Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter.
What happens during coagulation?
Blood clots and coagulation Blood vessels shrink so that less blood will leak out. Tiny cells in the blood called platelets stick together around the wound to patch the leak. Blood proteins and platelets come together and form what is known as a fibrin clot. The clot acts like a mesh to stop the bleeding.
What is the coagulation process?
Coagulation is the chemical water treatment process used to remove solids from water, by manipulating electrostatic charges of particles suspended in water. This process introduces small, highly charged molecules into water to destabilize the charges on particles, colloids, or oily materials in suspension.
What are the side effects of alum?
If experienced, these tend to have a Severe expression i fluid accumulation around the eye. throat swelling. a feeling of throat tightness. a skin ulcer. hives. a shallow ulcer on the skin. fainting. puffy face from water retention.
Is alum positive or negative?
For example, the colloidal particles are negatively charged and alum is added as a coagulant to create positively charged ions. Once the repulsive charges have been neutralized (since opposite charges attract), van der Waals force will cause the particles to cling together (agglomerate) and form micro floc.
Does alum increase pH?
Ionic species present in alum solutions are highly dependent on the degree of reaction with hydroxyl ions. It is tempting to say that “the composition is pH-dependent.” However, in the vicinity of pH=4.3 the composition of alum solutions changes a great deal with very little change in pH.
Can you use too much flocculant?
Flocculant is aluminum sulfate, which is designed to clump with the particles you’re trying to remove. But if you add too much, the flocculant will start to agglomerate with itself instead of those particles. These flocculant clumps will not drop to the pool floor and can clog up your filter.
What is an example of a flocculant?
Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent wastewater water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering. Examples of ChemTreat coagulation products include aluminum salts, iron salts, and polyelectrolytes.
What is a natural flocculant?
BEWAT natural products are a very specific range focused on treating wastewater. They are mainly composed of polymers of natural origin extracted from plants, algae or animals. Among these are polysaccharides and water soluble substances that act as coagulation and / or flocculation agents.