Germanium, element #32, was discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler.
How was germanium first discovered?
Germanium was one of the elements whose existence was predicted in 1869 by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, after he noticed a gap between silicon and tin in his periodic table. Germanium was discovered by Clemens A. Winkler in 1886, in Germany, in a mineral sample from a silver mine.
Is germanium found in the human body?
Germanium is a chemical element that can be found in trace amounts in some ores and carbon-based materials. Some people promote it as a treatment for HIV and AIDS, cancer, and other conditions. But the purported health benefits of germanium haven’t been supported by research.
Where is germanium found?
Germanium is primarily mined with zinc ore as well as with argyrodite, germanite, and coal according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. According to Chemistry Explained, germanium is mined in Alaska, Tennessee, China, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, Russia and Belgium.
When and where was germanium discovered?
History. Germanium was discovered by Clemens A. Winkler at Freiberg, Germany, in 1886. Its existence had been predicted by Mendeleev who predicted its atomic weight would be about 71 and that its density around 5.5 g/cm3.
Is germanium harmful to humans?
Germanium is not an essential element. Its acute toxicity is low. However, at least 31 reported human cases linked prolonged intake of germanium products with renal failure and even death. Signs of kidney dysfunction, kidney tubular degeneration, and germanium accumulation were observed.
Is germanium man made or natural?
Germanium is not found as the free element in nature. Germanium is found in germanite, argyrodite, and some zinc ores. It is also present in coal and its presence in coal insures reserves for many years.
Why is germanium bad for you?
Inorganic (elemental) germanium is LIKELY UNSAFE. This includes certain compounds such as germanium oxide. There have been more than 30 reports of kidney failure and death linked with use of these forms of germanium. It builds up in the body and can damage vital organs such as the kidneys.
Is germanium good for the body?
Despite serious safety concerns, germanium is used for heart and blood vessel conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease; for eye conditions, including glaucoma and cataracts; and for liver conditions, including hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Is germanium safe to handle?
Route of Entry: Skin Contact Skin Absorption Eye Contact Inhalation Ingestion Germanium metal is relatively non-toxic by all routes of exposure, particularly in massive forms.
What foods contain germanium?
Germanium is a naturally occurring element. Trace amounts can be found in foods such as shiitake mushrooms, garlic, tuna, and tomato juice. However, it is not an essential nutrient for human health.
Is germanium a rare earth element?
Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are raw materials with a growing demand for the production of high-tech devices and engineered systems such as electric automobiles, infrared optics, fiber-optic technology, displays and semiconductors.
What is germanium an example of?
The Germanium element is not doped with any impurities. Hence, it is an intrinsic semiconductor.So, Germanium is an example of an intrinsic semiconductor.
Where is germanium used in everyday life?
The largest use of germanium is in the semiconductor industry. When doped with small amounts of arsenic, gallium, indium, antimony or phosphorus, germanium is used to make transistors for use in electronic devices. Germanium is also used to create alloys and as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps.
What products are made from germanium?
In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. Because germanium is transparent to infrared radiation, it is employed in equipment used for detecting and measuring such radiation, such as windows and lenses.
How are they obtained from pure germanium?
By doping the pure germanium with one of the above elements, the p-type semiconductor is obtained. Hence, the correct option is Option A – Aluminium. Note:In N-type semiconductor, the concentration of electrons is higher than holes. This is obtained by doping the germanium with elements in the 15th group elements.
Is germanium radioactive?
Germanium 76 is slightly radioactive and is the least common. Germanium 74 is the most common isotope having the greatest natural abundance of the five. Under the condition of being bombarded with alpha particles, Germanium 72 generates stable Se 77.
What does germanium stand for?
Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon.
Is germanium magnetic?
Abstract. The magnetic susceptibility of highly doped germanium has been measured between 300°K and 1.3°K. The contribution of the carriers to the susceptibility has been derived from the data.
What are 6 interesting facts about germanium?
Interesting Facts about Germanium Scientists are studying germanium for use in chemotherapy to help treat cancer. Dmitri Mendeleev first named the element “ekasilicon”, but it was later renamed by Winkler. Some compounds that include germanium are useful in killing bacteria while not harming animals.
Which is the rarest element on the Earth?
A team of researchers using the ISOLDE nuclear-physics facility at CERN has measured for the first time the so-called electron affinity of the chemical element astatine, the rarest naturally occurring element on Earth.
Does germanium float in water?
Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid. Germanium is an important semiconductor, mainly used in transistors and integrated circuits. They are often made from germanium to which small amounts of arsenic, gallium, or other metals. Germanium forms many compounds.
What does germanium smell like?
Germane Names Chemical formula GeH 4 Molar mass 76.62 g/mol Appearance Colorless gas Odor Pungent.
Why silicon is mostly used than germanium?
At room temperature, Silicon crystal has fewer free electrons than Germanium crystal. This implies that silicon will have much smaller Collector cut off current than Germanium. The structure of Germanium crystals will be destroyed at higher temperature. However, Silicon crystals are not easily damaged by excess heat.
What elements does germanium react with?
Germanium react with O2, forming germanium dioxide, GeO2. At room temperature, the germanium surface is passivated by the GeO2 layer. When heated to red heat, germanium reacts with oxygen in the air, forming germanium dioxide.